Active substances: Ivermectin
In, Sasaki-Fukatsu et al.
Each year, louse infestations still affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, 6 to 12 million children in the United States annually. Analysis of data on the global incidence of pediculosis has shown that this remains a major health problem in many countries.
Thus, the head louse is prevalent in all countries, and outbreaks have been described at all levels in society.
However, children of primary school age constitute the largest group of people affected.
Approximately 6—12 million cases of infestation occur each year in the United States among children 3—12 years old. The pubic louse is usually a sexually transmitted organism, although atypical locations such as eyebrows and eyelashes have been reported.
The body louse lives in clothes and multiplies when cold, promiscuity, lack of hygiene, and war are present. Its prevalence also reflects the socioeconomic level of society.
The body louse is the species known to be involved in epidemics of louse-borne infectious diseases, but all the three cause pediculosis which is highly contagious and easily transmitted by close body-to-body contact or contact with infested linen, brushes, or clothes, according to the species of louse.
A louse-infested person can be infested by thousands of lice, each of which bites on average five times per day for body lice. In literature, several methods were used to get rid of lice infestations. Thus, this review summarizes the management methods and various strategies used in treating these hematophagous parasites.
Temperature is also highly influential on the louse's physiology. Although eggs can survive at lower temperatures, their viability is limited to 16 days.
A louse typically feeds five times a day and each female can have several successive partners.
At maturity, lice can mate every day and each female lays 8—10 eggs per day, with a female able to lay up to 300 eggs during her lifetime.
During the prolonged mating process, both the male and the female will continue to feed.