Active substances: Norfloxacin
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For this reason norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy due to the risk of spontaneous abortions and birth defects. The manufacturer only recommends use of norfloxacin during pregnancy when benefit outweighs risk.
Ciprofloxacin is being licensed for the treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli and Inhalational Anthrax post-exposure and levofloxacin was recently licensed for the treatment of Inhalational Anthrax post-exposure.
However, the Fluoroquinolones are licensed to treat lower respiratory infections in children with cystic fibrosis in the UK.
Adverse effects In general, fluoroquinolones are well tolerated, with most side-effects being mild to moderate. The overall rate of adverse events in patients treated with fluoroquinolones is roughly similar to that seen in patients treated with other antibiotic classes.
Centers for Disease Control study found patients treated with fluoroquinolones experienced adverse events severe enough to lead to an emergency department visit more frequently than those treated with cephalosporins or macrolides, but less frequently than those treated with penicillins, clindamycin, sulfonamides, or vancomycin.
Among these, tendon problems and exacerbation of the symptoms of the neurological disorder myasthenia gravis are the subject of "black box" warnings in the United States.
Younger people typically experience good recovery, but permanent disability is possible, and is more likely in older patients. Simultaneous use of corticosteroids is present in almost one-third of quinolone-associated tendon rupture.
Fluoroquinoline treatment is associated with risk that is similar to or less than that associated with broad spectrum cephalosporins.
The method of claim 1 wherein the antimicrobial medication is an antiparasitic agent, and the pathogenic microbes are parasites.
The method of claim 1 wherein the first promoter is selected from the group consisting of ubiquitous promoters, tissue-specific promoters, inducible promoters, and synthetic promoters. The method of claim 21 wherein the first viral vector is a HIV-1 lentivirus vector, containing a tetX tetracycline resistance gene downstream of a TetOn inducible promoter.
The method of claim 11 wherein the patient is a mouse. The method of claim 1 wherein the first viral vector is a human adenovirus serotype 11 vector, containing both the vgb and ermA antimicrobial resistance genes, each downstream of a GAPDH promoter.
In particular, bacteria, parasites, and fungi present a major health threat to humans and other mammals. The goal of the antimicrobial treatment is to kill a large number of the microbes without excessively harming the patient, whether the patient is a human or another mammal.
Furthermore, the development of resistance to antimicrobials in microbes has become a rising global health threat. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA causes at least 80,000 invasive infections each year in the United States, which result in over 11,000 deaths.
Antimicrobial resistance can be conferred through the expression of an antimicrobial resistance gene. The gene typically codes for an enzyme, which can interact with the antimicrobial medication or its target in a way that neutralizes the antimicrobial's toxicity to the microbe.
Hence, there is a need in the art for improved methods to kill microbes in a patient.
Exemplary antifungal agents include clotrimazole, econazole, isavuconazonium sulfate, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, natamycin, nystatin, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, griseofulvin, flucytosine, terbinafine, cycloheximide, and combinations thereof.
A promoter is a sequence of nucleic acids located upstream of a gene that helps regulate the expression of the downstream gene s. Some promoters bind transcription factors that are broadly active. In contrast to ubiquitous promoters, tissue-specific promoters primarily bind their transcription factors in a certain cell or tissue type.
Genes downstream of a tissue-specific promoter are expressed primarily when they are located in a cell of their promoter's specific tissue type.