Active substances: Doxycycline
Primary outcome measures were fever clearance time and frequencies of treatment failure and relapse. Results Between and, the study enrolled 216 patients 72 per arm; 158 73. Among R.
No patients returned with PCR-confirmed R. Conclusion In Lao adults, azithromycin is inferior to doxycycline as oral therapy for uncomplicated murine typhus.
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Evidence that the soil microbiome can be involved in doxycycline degradation was given by Yan et al.
However, it cannot be excluded that a higher population density and competition in the rhizosphere buffered the effect of manure and doxycycline application on the abundance of ARGs relative to 16 S rRNA gene abundance and decreased the persistence of manure-derived bacteria.
This might suggest that indigenous rhizosphere bacteria carrying bla and pncA genes might have benefited from manure-derived nutrients and the application of doxycycline.
This was surprising since previous studies detected ARGs on harvested vegetables grown in soil that was treated with manure or sewage sludge Marti et al.
Leaves of field-grown lettuce are exposed to a high number of bacteria originating from dust and soil particles transported by wind and from irrigation water or rainwater, which could already contain bacteria or transfer soil particles to the leaves by splash erosion.
In the present greenhouse study, it is likely that the phyllosphere did not harbor dense leaf-associated bacterial populations due to controlled conditions, which might explain the low number of ARGs and MGEs detected by qPCR.
However, tet A was detected in bacteria from lettuce leaves but only from the manure treatments. This is in agreement with the results of a previous study detecting tet A in bacteria from the phyllosphere of lettuce grown on manure-amended soil Wang et al.
Their proportion was highly decreased after manure application.
These findings were consistent with several previous studies also reporting a decrease of Actinobacteria after application of organic amendment Calleja-Cervantes et al. At the same time, we observed that manure application increased the proportion of Firmicutes Clostridia in bulk soil and lettuce rhizosphere, which was expected regarding the high proportion of Clostridia in manure.
This is in line with previous studies demonstrating a high proportion of Clostridia in manure as well as a clear effect on soil bacterial communities Ding et al.
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