Active substances: Ciprofloxacin
It occurs more commonly among women of reproductive age. The prevalence rate in the United States is around 20 to 150 per 100,000 women.
Aortic diseases in SLE are not commonly reported.
However, a case-control study found that SLE patients have a higher proportion of aortic aneurysms compared with age- and sex-matched controls, with an odds ratio of 4.
Several pathophysiologic hypotheses have been purported to explain the occurrence of aortic aneurysms in SLE. Popular theories include an autoimmune process, such as vasculitis with associated medial degeneration, or an atherosclerotic process due to longstanding steroid use, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.
A meta-analysis conducted by Kurata and colleagues in examined the pathophysiological relationship of certain clinical and histopathologic findings to the formation of aortic aneurysms in SLE.
They included 35 cases reported over the past 40 years of SLE with aortic aneurysms, including those complicated by dissection. The study found that aortic involvement in SLE affected relatively younger individuals, with an average age of 44.
This is contrary to aneurysms found in the general population which are usually discovered in the sixth decade of life and more commonly affecting the abdominal rather than the thoracic segments.
Thoracic aortic aneurysms were not linked with atherosclerosis but were positively correlated with vasculitis, cystic medial degeneration, dissection, and higher mortality rate.
Abdominal aortic aneurysms on the other hand showed positive correlation with atherosclerosis associated with prolonged steroid treatment and with better prognosis.
Aortitis, the pathologic term for inflammation of the aorta, is broadly subdivided into noninfectious and infectious aortitis. The majority of aortitis cases are noninfectious and include large-vessel vasculitides and other rheumatologic conditions.
Infectious aortitis are less common. A normal aorta is normally not prone to infection. However, damage to the aortic wall, such as in cases of atherosclerotic disease, aneurysm, cystic medial degeneration, endothelial damage from diabetes, medical devices, or surgery, makes it weak and vulnerable to infection.
Microorganisms can seed hematogenously via the vasa vasorum, contiguously from the adjacent infected tissues, or by traumatic or iatrogenic means.
Commonly implicated pathogens include Salmonella, Staphylococcal, and Streptococcus species. Tuberculous aortitis is infrequent in the developed countries. However, due to the high prevalence of tuberculous infections in our country, it is still relevant to include a tuberculous etiology in the differentials.
The known risk factors for invasive Salmonella infections are achlorhydria i. A minimum of three weeks post source control up to 6-12 weeks is recommended for endovascular infection.
And chronic suppressive therapy is advised for patients with infected prosthetic materials, biliary tract abnormalities, and people living with HIV with nontyphoidal bacteremia, low CD 4 counts, or those poorly responding to antiretroviral therapy.
People time again cede to themselves to decline into habits that induce them the error of coping.
Bioanalysis can be very challenging when the drug or the metabolites to be dignified are vacillating or are unmanageable to extract from biological matrices or when informative matrix obstruction is experienced during detection of the analytes of interest.
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