Active substances: Ciprofloxacin
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The positively charged cations form insoluble drug-cation complexes in the gastrointestinal tract GIT.
Quinolones have a large volume of distribution and their distribution in urinary tract and respiratory tissues is of important because they are effective against microorganisms commonly responsible for urinary tract and respiratory tract infections Davis et al.
Physicochemical and Pharmacokinetics Characteristic of Ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin, a second generation quinolone, has a pH dependent solubility Jaman et al.
Besides, ciprofloxacin in zwitterionic form was found to be most sensitive to photodegradation at slightly basic pH Torniainen et al.
For example, at pH 8. Ciprofloxacin is structurally similar to nalidixic acid Figure 1 B Davis et al. The sixth position controls the mechanism of action and bacterial potency of quinolones.
Unlike nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin contains the fluorine atom at position number 6.
Due to this single change, ciprofloxacin is approximately 100 times more potent than nalidixic acid. Positions 1 and 7 seven control the potency spectrum and pharmacokinetics of quinolones.
It is used for the treatment of a wide range of infections, such as complicated urinary tract infections, bone or joint infections, cystic fibrosis, prostatitis, typhoid, shigellosis, chronic suppurative otitis media, and epididymo-orchitis caused by susceptible bacteria.
Common adverse drug reactions of ciprofloxacin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
Thrombophlebitis at intravenous infusion site, phototoxicity, transient hearing impairment, and crystalluria are some of the infrequent and rare reported adverse drug reactions of ciprofloxacin Davis et al.
The absorption rate is affected by intestinal pH, with greater absorption in the duodenum and proximal jejunum than in the distal small intestine Campoli-Richards et al.
Ciprofloxacin demonstrates a concentration-dependent permeability and it is widely distributed in body tissues and fluids including bile, prostatic tissues, gingival fluid, and lungs. Clearance of ciprofloxacin is by both renal and non-renal pathways Micromedex,.
Bioavailability and Bioequivalence of Innovator and Generic Ciprofloxacin Generic equivalents of brand-name drugs innovator drugs have been introduced in the global healthcare market to lower the cost of medications Kaushal et al.
Comparative bioavailability studies need to be established before generic drug formulations are commercially available to consumers.