Active substances: Ciprofloxacin
Mubashar Saeed Dr. Asif Rabbani Dr.
Group-I comprised of sheep below one year of age, while Group-II had sheep of more than one year age. Five ml of blood was collected from the jugular vein of the sheep, prior to slaughter, in a test tube having a few drops of 0.
After its slaughter the compound stomach of the animal was obtained and put into a polythene bag, which was then brought to parasitology Section, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar for further investigations.
After opening of the compound stomach, each compartment was searched for paramphistomes. Helminths so collected were put into glass jars. Preservation and staining of Paramphistomes was carried out by adopting the prescribed methods.Transplanting technique has to be replaced because of water scarcity, unavailability of productive method of sowing without compromising. But it is no more cost-effective with a resource efficient, economical and labor and high cost of production ensure the food security in future.
Complete record of worms collected, regarding their number and site of predilection was maintained. The taxonomy of the species of the genus Paramphistomum was studied with the help of keys.
All the parasites of the genus Paramphistomum were recovered from the rumen of the infected sheep identified as Paramphistomum cervi. A total of 2,329 helminths Paramphistomum cervi were recovered from infected sheep of both the age groups.
Average infection rate in these animals was recorded as 7. Transplanting technique has to be replaced with a resource efficient, economical and productive method of sowing without compromising the yield and net production to ensure the food security in future.
Direct Seeded Rice DSR in place of the traditional transplanted rice is a way to reduce labor charges for nursery raising, puddling and transplanting. DSR is sown directly into the moist soil like wheat, corn or cotton and does not need continuous submergence so it reduces overall water requirement.
Production Technology: The land should be prepared to produce a leveled seedbed with fine tilth free of weeds. Fine seed bed ensures better yield because of good germination and crop stand, root proliferation, fertilizer efficiency.
Seed should be moistened in water for overnight to hasten germination. Soaked seed should, however, be dried in shade to avoid stickiness of wet seed for drilling.
Soaking of seed with fungicide eliminates or reduces seed borne and soil-borne diseases. The seed rate for direct seeding of ne grain rice varieties should be 16-18 kg and for coarse varieties 14-16 kg per acre.
Seed should be sown 2-3 cm deep for good crop stand as placing seed deeper will result in poor emergence.